Risk factors

   Non modifiable factors

   Modifiable factors

Health education


   Non pharmalogical






Rosengren ,B.; Järvinen,T.; Rodmark ,C.; Nilsson,J.; Sernbo, I.; &Karlson, M. 2010.Prevelence of osteoporosis and incidence of hip fracture in women- secular trends over 30 years.BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders.Vol 11 p 48. Consulted 05.05.2011. Available at http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2474/11/48

Cummins, S.;1996.Shouldpremenopausal women be screened for osteoporosis? Annals of Internal Medicine Vol, 104.P 817-823 Consulted 07.05.2011.Available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/410461

Hien ,V.; Khan,N.; Lam,N.; Mai,L.; Trungle,D.;Nhung,B.; Nakamori, M.;Kunii ,D .;Sakai,T.;& Yamamoto,S.2004.Determining the Prevalence of Osteoporosis and Related Factors using Quantitative Ultrasound in Vietnamese Adult Women.American Journal of Epidemiology.Vol 161, P 824-830. Consulted 10.05.2011. Available at http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/161/9/824.full.pdf

Mauck,K.; &Clarke,B . 2006. Diagnosis, Screening, Prevention, and Treatment of Osteoporosis.Concise review for clinicians.Mayo clinic.Vol,81 P 662-672. Consulted 05.05.2011. Available at, http://www.bhs1.org/documents/Internal%20Medicine%20Resident%20Curriculum

Wark, J.; 2010.Studies of drugs and other measures to prevent and treat osteoporosis; a guide for non experts. Consulted 07.05.2011. Available at: http://www.who.int/ageing/publications/noncommunicable/alc_osteoporosis_brief.pdf

Walker, J. 2008. Osteoporosis: pathogenesis, diagnosis and management. .learning zone continuing professional development.Nursing Standard.Vol 22,p 48-56. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer

WHO 2007.Women, ageing and health: A framework for action: Focus on gender.Consulted,4.09.2011.Available at http://www.who.int/ageing/publications/Women-ageing-health-lowres.pdf