Smoking leads to higher incidence of fractures, decreased bone healing and new bone formation,a decrease in mineralization of bones in the hip,hand forearm and heel
Vitamin D plays a fundamental role in calcium absorption and overall bone health.
Calcium facilitates the intestinal absorption of filtered calcium and reabsorption of filtered calcium from the glomerular tubules within the kidneys back into the plasma.
Calcium is also essential for healthy new bones and may be acquired through dietary intake or the use of supplements.
Exercise. Physical activity can delay the progression of osteoporosis from the late 20s by slowing the rate at which bone mineral density is reduced.