Exfolance cervicovaginal cytology
Liquid based cytology
- Also known as the pap smear screening technique or conventional cytology
- Samples are obtained from the cervix and the endocervical canal by the use of an Ayre spatula and ctyobrush.
- Samples taken are then smeared on a slide which is then fixed with cytology fixative.the inaccuracy of this tests is about 5-10% cases
- Sample collection method is similar to that of the conventional pap smear method although a special sample collecting device that collects exfoliated cells from transformation zone of the cervix.
- The device is placed in a vial that contains preservative that contains hemolytic and mucolytic agents.
- There is even distribution of cells with reduced cellular debris and RBC’s in the sample
HPV DNA test
- With the use of acetic acid (vinegar) the precancerous cells temporarily turn white when exposed to the solution therefore making it easy to identify infected cells
- In other cases iodine-based solution is used which turns normal cervical cells brown and the abnormal cells remain yellow or unstained making them clearly visible.
- is suitable for its cost effect since it requires low resource settings for launching and sustaining. Non-physician can use this procedure with basic training
- Use of Hybrid capture 2 assay
- Samples for the screening are obtained from cell suspensions acquired from liquid based cytology or use of the cytocervicla brush
- the HPVDNA test is found to be more sensitive in detecting appropriate triage of women about 31-60% of the women with ASUSC test positive for high risk HPV DNA